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Bloom's Taxonomy Revised

Bloom's Taxonomy

Level Categories, Attributes and Keywords

Level

Level Attributes

Keywords

1. Knowledge

Exhibits previously learned material by recalling facts, terms, basic concepts and answers.

who, what, why, when, omit, where, which, choose, find, how, define, label, show, spell, list, match, name, relate, tell, recall, select

2. Comprehension

Demonstrating understanding of facts and ideas by organizing, comparing, translating, interpreting, giving descriptions and stating main ideas.

compare, contrast, demonstrate, interpret, explain, extend, illustrate, infer, outline, relate, rephrase, translate, summarize, show, classify

3. Application

Solving problems by applying acquired knowledge, facts, techniques and rules in a different way.

Apply, build, choose, construct, develop, interview, make use of, organize, experiment with, plan, select, solve, utilize, model, identify

4. Analysis

Examining and breaking information into parts by identifying motives or causes; making inferences and finding evidence to support generalizations.

analyze, categorize, classify, compare, contrast, discover, dissect, divide, examine, inspect, simplify, survey, take part in, test for, distinguish, list, distinction, theme, relationships, function, motive, inference, assumption, conclusion

5. Synthesis

Compiling information together in a different way by combining elements in a new pattern or proposing alternative solutions

build, choose, combine, compile, compose, construct, create, design, develop, estimate, formulate, imagine, invent, make up, originate, plan, predict, propose, solve, solution, suppose, discuss, modify, change, original, improve, adapt, minimize, maximize, delete, theorize, elaborate, test, improve, happen, change

6. Evaluation

Presenting and defending opinions by making judgments about information, validity of ideas or quality of work based on a set of criteria.

award, choose, conclude, criticize, decide, defend, determine, dispute, evaluate, judge, justify, measure, compare, mark, rate, recommend, rule on, select, agree, interpret, explain, appraise, prioritize, opinion, support, importance, criteria, prove, disprove, assess, influence, perceive, value, estimate, influence, deduct

 

Action Verbs for Stating Cognitive Outcomes

Knowledge

Comprehension

Application

Analysis

Synthesis

Evaluation

List
Name
Identify
Show
Define
Recognize
Recall
State
Visualize

Summarize
Explain
Interpret
Describe
Compare
Paraphrase
Differentiate
Demonstrate
Classify

Solve
Illustrate
Calculate
Use
Interpret
Relate
Manipulate
Apply
Modify

Analyze
Organize
Deduce
Contrast
Compare
Distinguish
Discuss
Plan
Devise

Design
Hypothesize
Support
Schematize
Write
Report
Justify

Evaluate
Choose
Estimate
Judge
Defend
Criticize

 

Six Levels of Cognition

According to Benjamin Bloom, and his colleagues, there are six levels of cognition:

  • Knowledge: rote memorization, recognition, or recall of facts
  • Comprehension: understanding what the facts mean
  • Application: correct use of the facts, rules, or ideas
  • Analysis: breaking down information into component parts
  • Synthesis: combination of facts, ideas, or information to make a new whole
  • Evaluation: judging or forming an opinion about the information or situation

Ideally, each of these levels should be covered in each course and, thus, at least one objective should be written for each level. Depending on the nature of the course, a few of these levels may need to be given more emphasis than the others.

Objectives and Assessment Tools

Below are examples of objectives written for each level of Bloom's Taxonomy and activities and assessment tools based on those objectives. Common key verbs used in drafting objectives are also listed for each level.

Level

Level Attributes

Keywords

Example Objective

Example Activity

Example Assessment

1. Knowledge

Rote memorization, recognition, or recall of facts.

list, recite, define, name, match, quote, recall, identify, label, recognize

"By the end of this course, the student will be able to recite Newton's three laws of motion."

Have students group up and perform simple experiments to the class showing how one of the laws of motion works.

Use the following question on an exam or homework. "Recite Newton's three laws of motion.

2. Comprehension

Understanding what the facts mean.

describe, explain, paraphrase, restate, give original examples of, summarize, interpret, discuss

"By the end of this course, the student will be able to explain Newton's three laws of motion in his/her own words."

Group students into pairs and have each pair think of words that describe motion. After a few minutes, ask pairs to volunteer some of their descriptions and write these descriptions on the board.

Assign the students to write a simple essay that explains what Newton's laws of motion mean in his/her own words.

3. Application

Correct use of the facts, rules, or ideas.

calculate, predict, apply, solve, illustrate,use, demonstrate, determine, mode

"By the end of this course, the student will be able to calculate the kinetic energy of a projectile."

After presenting the kinetic energy equation in class, have the students pair off for just a few minutes and practice using it so that they feel comfortable with it before being assessed.

On a test, define a projectile and ask the students to "Calculate the kinetic energy of the projectile."

4. Analysis

Breaking down information into component parts

classify, outline, break down, categorize, analyze, diagram, illustrate

By the end of this course, the student will be able to differentiate between potential and kinetic energy.

Present the students with different situations involving energy and ask the students to categorize the energy as either kinetic or potential then have them explain in detail why they categorized it the way they did, thus breaking down what exactly makes up kinetic and potential energy.

Give the students an assignment that asks them outline the basic principles of kinetic and potential energy. Ask them to point out the differences between the two as well as how they are related.

5. Synthesis

Combining parts to make a new whole.

design, formulate, build, invent,create, compose, generate, derive, modify, develop

"By the end of this section of the course, the student will be able to design an original homework problem dealing with the principle of conservation of energy."

Tie each lecture or discussion to the previous lectures or discussions before it, thus helping the students assemble all the discreet classroom sessions into a unified topic or theory.

Give the students aproject in which they must design an original homework problem dealing with the principle of conservation of energy.

6. Evaluation

Judging the value or worth of information or ideas.

choose, support, relate, determine, defend, judge, grade, compare, contrast, argue, justify, support, convince, select, evaluate

"By the end of the course, the student will be able to determine whether using conservation of energy or conservation of momentum would be more appropriate for solving a dynamics problem."

Have different groups of students solve the same problem using different methods, then have each group present the pros and cons of the method they chose.

On a test, describe a dynamic system andask the students which method they would use to solve the problem and why.